• 1. Think about who is your target?

    • Targets include those responsible for creating the problem

    • Those who have the power to fix the problem (but are not doing so)

    • Those who are working to fix the problem. This includes you and your group!

    • (You might need to research your targets further to find out who is the decision-maker)


  • 2. Who has the power?

    • Each target you have identified will have a varying level of influence/power

    • Draw out the graph below and use it to plot what box your targets will fit into



  • Spectrum of allies (on PowerPoint)

    • Campaigns often recruit advocates or allies to help promote their cause.

    • The tool below can help you think about the people you have access to that can help support your campaign, as well as the people that still need convincing

    • Move from right to left, placing different individuals or groups in each wedge. You can then start to design your actions or tactics to move your people from one wedge to the next

    • For this tool to work effectively you need to be specific, ‘the public’ is too broad and your campaign actions might not be as effective.



  • (Active opposition are people who have done something to prevent you from your goal)

  • Creating an argument (Anger, Hope, Action model)

    • When talking to people about your campaign, a key way to get them engaged is through using the Anger, Hope, Action model of engagement. This model takes people through the emotional stages of being angry about an issue, hopeful there is a solution, and then invites them to get involved by giving them an action.

  • Anger

Make someone angry about the issue. Explain to them what you are campaigning about and why it is unfair or unjust.

  • Hope

Don’t leave someone angry about the issue. Give them hope that it can change. Identify why there is hope at this particular moment. Talk to them about it and why it is so important to support your campaign at the moment and what the chance of success is.

  • Action

This is the most important part of the conversation and often the part that most people forget. Always have a clear action you’d like people to take and ask them to commit to it.

The action can be anything that meaningfully takes your campaign forward, from signing up to being part of the campaign team, attending the next meeting or joining in a protest.


You can also use an Apathy Staircase to complement or replace this tool, it is a similar model for and creating your argument and engaging your audience.



You need to make sure your target is always aware your campaign is serious and isn’t going away. The best way to do this is to figure out a series of tactics and actions that will build momentum and pressure over a few months.


  • Your target won’t speak to you at all

  • Your target isn’t taking your campaign seriously

  • You’ve reached out to the decision-makers and they just won’t move



  • To increase the pressure on targets when other tactics have appeared to fail

  • To ensure the campaign remains fun and exciting for both campaigners and increasing support

  • To show that you aren’t planning on backing down



1. Increase your supporters

  • The more people you can get involved and supporting your campaign, the more you are already winning. The best way to get people involved is to plan a journey to take them on, but don’t just plan one event, plan a series. Use each event as a platform to attract more people to the next event.

  • Run stalls at college and SU events. Make sure to talk to people and tell them about your campaign and upcoming “benchmark dates”.

  • Host events such as film screenings or music nights. Consider what skills you have in your campaign team, that can be used to attract people and create an opportunity for them to join your campaign.


2. Get creative

  • Once you have attracted more people you can start to think about how you will attract more attention, build momentum further and start to think bigger.

  • Consider symbolic or creative actions e.g. a silent protest.


3. Direct action

  • Direct action can produce some great outcomes, at their best they can shift power and lead to some big wins. However, you should only move into this space if you have had some training in non-violent direct action, and you’ve planned well and thought through the risk. Make sure you feel comfortable going ahead weighing up the risks involved.

  • Direct action is used to ensure your target cannot ignore you any longer by disrupting things as much as possible.




Head back to our main Campaigns Hub for more information about how we can assist you!


Interactive Documents

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